Nowadays you can find a new electrical device called heat pump which is able to extract heat from certain place and then can transfer to another place. This kind of heat pump technology has been in use in countries like Canada and many other places of the world for quite some time.
Most of the air conditioners and refrigerators make use of this technology where heat pump will transfer heat by circulation of refrigerant which is passed through cycle of evaporation as well as condensation.
Let us try to understand how do heat pumps work? Here there is a compressor pump which will pump the refrigerants between the 2 heat exchanger coils. Out of these two coils, in one of the coils, the refrigerant will be evaporated at very low pressure.
During this time, it will try to absorb heat of the surrounding areas. After that the refrigerant will be compressed while passing through the other coil and during this time high pressure will be applied on the refrigerant.
At this juncture, it will try to release the heat that it absorbed earlier during its cycle. Both refrigerators as well as air conditioners can be examples of a heat pump operating only during the cooling mode.
Refrigerator is considered as an insulated box having heat pump system which is connected with it. There is an evaporator coil which is located inside a box, that is usually in freezer compartment.
From this location, heat will be absorbed and then transferred outside, which is normally behind or under the unit where there will be a condenser coil located. In the same way, an air conditioner will transfer heat from inside house to outdoors.
Cycle of the heat pump will be fully reversible, and thus your heat pumps will be able to provide climate control to your home all throughout the year.
During winter, it will produce heat while during summer it will provide cool and dehumidified air. It will be able to maintain a temperature of 21°C even during the chilly winter when the outside temperature is -18°C.
The air-source of heat pump will absorb heat from outdoor air during winter and will reject heat into the outdoor air during summer. In countries like Canada, this is one of the most common heat pumps found.
However, in few other places people are also using ground-source which is also called earth-energy, geo exchange or geothermal.
Here heat pumps, can draw heat from ground and ground water, which are also becoming quite popular.